A turbocharger is nothing but a centrifugal compressor. The principle here is forced induction. It’s the process of forcing compressed air into the intake for combustion.
First, we will see the basic parts of a turbocharger. A turbocharger consists of a compressor housing compress, a wheel turbine wheel, turbine housing, connecting shaft bearings, and oil seals.
The middle part to hold together is called a cartridge. The compressor wheel and the turbine wheel are connected with a shaft. So that turning the turbine wheel will turn the compressor wheel. A turbocharger is designed to rotate over a hundred thousand rpm. And oil feed line from the engine will lubricate the shaft and the bearings providing less friction.
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Now let’s see how the turbocharger works with the engine.
An engine without any forced induction device is a naturally aspirated engine. The air is pulled in through an air filter by the suction force of the piston then it gets mixed with the fuel, compressed, and gets ignited.
With the turbocharger introduced the exhaust gas from combustion turns, the turbine wheel. This turns the compressor wheel, and more air is compressed and fed to the engine.
Let’s take a closer look at the exhaust gas.
The exhaust gas from the engine will push the turbine wheel and this turns the compressor wheel forcing more air into the engine. According to gas laws for a constant volume increasing the air pressure will increase its temperature. so there will be a difference in temperature after charging forcing this air into the engine can reduce efficiency. and cause knocking in order to cool this air an intercooler is introduced.
The intercooler is an air-to-air heat exchanger device that helps to cool this air before it enters the engine. So introducing an intercooler into the system will increase the charge density. by cooling the air and provides volumetric efficiency.
In conclusion, a turbocharger will provide more air to expand on combustion. and produces more power and that’s how a turbocharger works. Thanks for reading and stay tuned for more.